Happy Reformation Day!
On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses on the Castle Church doors in Wittenberg, Germany, unknowingly launching the Protestant Reformation and recovering precious truths about the Gospel. The 95 Theses were arguments against the medieval church’s practice of selling indulgences, documents which freed one or one’s family members from time in purgatory.
From Desiring God Blog:
Luther’s First Thesis and Last Words
by David Mathis
491 years ago today, Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses to the church door in Wittenberg.
He wanted to debate the sale of indulgences with his fellow university professors. So he wrote in Latin.
But a nameless visionary translated the theses into German, carried them to the printing press, and enabled their dispersion far and wide. Luther ended up with more than he bargained for, but he proved to be no coward in defending the discoveries he was making in Scripture.
The truth of Luther’s first thesis would reverberate throughout his lifetime, even finding expression in his last words.
His first thesis reads,
When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said “Repent,” he intended that the entire life of believers should be repentance.
All of the Christian life is repentance. Turning from sin and trusting in the good news that Jesus saves sinners aren’t merely a one-time inaugural experience but the daily substance of Christianity. The gospel is for every day and every moment. Repentance is to be the Christian’s continual posture.
Almost 30 years later, on February 16, 1546, Luther’s last words, written on a piece of scrap paper, echoed the theme of his first thesis:
We are beggars! This is true.
From first thesis to last words, Luther lived at the foot of the cross, where our rebellious condition meets with the beauty of God’s lavish grace in the gospel of his Son—a gospel deep enough to cover all the little and massive flaws of a beggar like Luther and beggars like us.
Grace and Peace
Elections Canada has a nice map showing the results of the October 14th national election for the House of Commons:
This is more colorful than the red-blue map that we will see on election night here in the US (which I fear will have too much blue on it this year).
Here are the Canadian colors:
- Dark blue: the winning Conservative Party of Prime Minister Stephen Harper
- Red: Liberal Party (not much red on the main part of the map, but note the insets of Montreal and Toronto)
- Light blue: Bloc Quebecois
- Orange: New Democratic Party.
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My grandmother, on my mother’s side, lived to be 100. My wife’s grandmother, on her father’s side, turned 100 yesterday. I guess it looks good for women in my family.
Yahoo had a story yesterday: 4 Surprising signs you’ll live a long time. Here they are:
- Don’t drink pop. All that sugar either makes you fat or raises your triglyceride levels.
- Keep your legs strong. Walk. Exercise.
- Be born before your mother turns 25. I guess there’s not much I can do about that.
- Eat and drink purple things. Grapes, blueberries, red wine. I guess purple Jolly Ranchers don’t count.
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I wrote about dinosaur footprints a few weeks ago here and here. I had recently attended a young-Earth creation seminar where the speaker used very questionable examples of “human” footprints in Permian and Cretaceous rocks as evidence that humans and dinosaurs coexisted.
Many of these “human” footprints turn out to be forgeries. A scientist can easily tell a genuine footprint from a fake one. One way I mentioned before is to examine the thin layers (laminations) in the sediment beneath the footprint. If the footprint is genuine, the weight of the animal will have depressed the layers beneath the impression:
Freshly deposited sediments contain a lot of pore space, and are easily compressed.
On the other hand, if the footprint is a forgery, the carving will cut across the layering, with no compression of the layers beneath:
This is illustrated by the following photos from the Jurassic Morrison Formation, near Red Rocks Park west of Denver:
These are believed to be sauropod (picture “brontosaurus”) footprints, seen from the side (top photo) and from below (bottom photo). The size and distribution of the bulges suggest this interpretation, and the layering is depressed beneath each of these features, as discussed above.
Using this kind of evidence, geologists (including Christian geologists, even those associated with the Institute for Creation Research) have rightfully rejected every instance that has been suggested for human footprints in very old rocks.
The very presence of these footprints speaks against the whole flood-geology model advocated by young-Earth creationists. The following footprints are also exposed west of Denver:
This one exposure, in the Cretaceous Dakota Formation, has hundreds of footprints. Other Mesozoic locations have thousands of footprints, such as the “Dinosaur Dance Floor” recently described from the Jurassic of the Utah-Arizona border.
Based on multiple criteria, geologists seek to determine the type of environment these features formed in. The Dakota Formation footprints shown above are interpreted to have formed in a coastal environment, based on the types and distribution of sediments, sedimentary structures (such as ripple marks), fossils, and trace fossils (such as worm burrows). The Morrison Formation sauropod footprints, on the other hand, were deposited in a stream channel. Again, the type and distribution of sediments, sedimentary structures, and fossils help geologists to make this type of interpretation.
Young-Earth creationists insist that all of these sediments formed in Noah’s flood. (Now the Bible doesn’t say that the sedimentary rocks were deposited in Noah’s flood, but that is a bit off topic for now). Let’s examine what it would take for these rock layers I have been discussing in Colorado to be a product of the flood. Here’s what would have had to have happened:
- The flood covers all the Earth, eroding the continents down to their roots. Most erosion, according to this model, would have had to have happened early in the flood.
- At this point, the world-wide ocean was a slurry of water, sediments, and fossils.
- Deposition of thousands of feet of sediments, representing Proterozoic through Triassic rocks.
- Deposition of some Jurassic sediments. Then some dinosaurs go walking around. Then some more deposition. Then some more dinosaurs–a bunch this time–go wandering around. Then some more deposition of sediments. Then more dinosaurs trotting along the beach. Then more sediments. Wait, how did these dinosaurs all survive the previous part of the Flood?
- Deposition of thousands of feet of sediments on top of all of this.
- Lithification of the sediments (changing from soft sediments to solid sedimentary rocks).
- Uplift of the Rocky Mountains, tilting up these layers to a steep angle (they aren’t horizontal anymore).
- Erosion to expose the rocks.
Multiply this by hundreds of sites worldwide. Add other considerations, such as the presence of complete dinosaur nests in the Cretaceous of Montana and other places. Did dinosaurs have time to make nests, lay eggs, and for those eggs to hatch, right in the middle of the flood?
In the young-Earth flood model, dinosaur footprints shouldn’t even exist in mid-flood sediments. But they do, in large numbers in some places.
The reason that I take the time to write about this is the gospel. For us to present young-Earth creationism as apologetics, and as a necessary part of Christian faith, actually works against the spread of the Kingdom among many groups, such as scientists. This is placing, as I have written before, an unnecessary and tragic stumbling block, keeping people from being open to Christianity. Let the foolishness of the message of the Cross be the stumbling block, not our bad arguments in defense of the Bible.
Grace and Peace
Photos by Kevin Nelstead
The attacks against John McCain by some environmental groups (such as the Sierra Club) are unfair. McCain has a well-integrated energy and environmental policy, that reflects his years of environmental leadership, not only in the Republican Party, but in the senate as a whole.
From Republicans for Environmental Protection:
The Environmental Case for John McCain
by REP Government Affairs Director David Jenkins
Speech to Society of Environmental Journalists conference, Roanoke, Virginia; October 18, 2008
Thank you, it is a pleasure to be here.
For those of you who don’t know, Republicans for Environmental Protection, or REP for short, is an organization dedicated to improving the Republican Party’s stance on environmental issues, helping elect truly green Republicans, and advancing our belief that real conservatism requires a strong stewardship ethic.
REP first endorsed Senator McCain in his 2000 primary race against George Bush—and in case anyone is wondering— no, we have never endorsed President Bush.
In fact, it was during that 2000 race that Senator McCain first met with REP and raised the issue of climate change.
And since climate change is currently the biggest and most pressing environmental challenge we face, it is a good place to start when talking about Senator McCain and the environment.
His record of leadership on climate change is unequaled. No member of Congress, Democrat or Republican, has done more to move our nation forward towards an effective response to climate change than John McCain.
Senator McCain has done more than talk about climate change, or roll out an election season plan. He was the first senator to introduce comprehensive climate legislation to cap greenhouse gas emissions.
He has been introducing his climate bill since 2003, he held numerous hearings on the legislation, and in the face of opposition by his own party leaders, used political capital to secure floor votes on the bill.
His leadership didn’t stop there. To build support for climate legislation, Senator McCain undertook an intensive effort to educate his colleagues in Congress about climate change and the need to address it.
He took skeptical senators and representatives to the ends of the earth, including Antarctica, Alaska, Greenland, and New Zealand, to show them, firsthand, the impacts of climate change, expose them to climate research, and convince them that it is time to act.
By contrast, Senator Obama’s record on climate change is pretty thin. We really do not know how much political capital he is willing to spend on the issue—or how this issue stacks up related to his other priorities. He has a plan, but that only matters if it is something that can realistically become law.
I firmly believe that a McCain presidency, because of his proven commitment to this issue, his record of bipartisanship, and the fact that he can secure Republican votes, offers the best opportunity to see meaningful climate legislation become law.
During the primary season, a top priority of the environmental community was for candidates to raise the climate issue on the campaign trail. Senator McCain did just that. He was constantly raising the issue in the Republican debates—even when the question was about energy or the economy, he addressed the issue in speeches, he sent out flyers exclusively about climate change, and he made this issue a key part of his campaign.
As you might imagine, this was a first for a GOP presidential primary—and on top of that, he actually won.
Because of Senator McCain’s record of climate leadership, the fact that he elevated the issue in the primaries, and because he was clearly the greenest candidate in the GOP field, I had hoped that the environmental community would have celebrated, at least briefly, his winning the nomination.
Well, that didn’t happen. Instead our friends over at Sierra Club begin launching harsh attacks on Senator McCain as soon as it seemed likely that he would be the GOP nominee.
In February, when the League of Conservation Voters released its 2007 scorecard, Senator McCain was given a zero rating because he missed all of the scored votes. Sierra Club President Carl Pope issued a statement at the time saying that McCain’s zero rating “exposed a lifetime pattern of voting with polluters and special interests.”
Call me crazy, but I thought it just exposed the fact that he was busy campaigning for president and missed the votes.
Now, interestingly enough, just yesterday, LCV issued its 2008 scorecard. Senator Obama received a score of 18 because he missed 9 of the 11 scored votes while he was out campaigning.
I look forward to seeing Mr. Pope’s characterization of that score.
I mention this because I think such harsh partisanship from the environmental community serves to further polarize environmental issues along political lines at a time when bipartisan support is needed, just as it was when we passed the landmark environmental laws of the 1970s, if we are to enact climate legislation that can be sustained long-term, regardless of which way the political winds are blowing.
Senator McCain also has a long record of leadership on public lands issues.
Most of you probably know that Senator McCain’s hero and role model is Theodore Roosevelt. This is especially true when it comes to environmental stewardship. His close friend, the late Congressman Mo Udall, also shaped Senator McCain’s stewardship ethic.
Senator McCain and Congressman Udall worked together to protect 3.4 million acres of Arizona wilderness. Senator McCain has been a champion of the Grand Canyon, fighting successfully for legislation to protect the canyon from noisy aircraft overflights. He currently has the Fossil Creek Wild and Scenic River bill in an omnibus public lands package that the Senate plans to vote on in November.
Thus far, Senator Obama has not taken an active leadership role in wilderness, parks, or other public lands issues.
Climate change and public lands issues are areas where there is a clear difference between the candidates in experience, focus, and leadership, but there are also some real differences in policy direction that have gotten very little play in the media.
One of these has to do with the candidates’ approach to water projects.
In 2006 and 2007, Senator McCain, along with Russ Feingold, sponsored a bill and two legislative amendments to require independent prioritization and review of Army Corps of Engineers water projects. Lacking such prioritization and oversight, Corps projects are often wasteful, pork barrel boondoggles that destroy rivers and wetlands and siphon valuable dollars away from more worthy projects.
Senator Obama opposed the McCain–Feingold Corps reform amendments.
Senator McCain supports farm policy reform to address costly, outdated, and environmentally harmful subsidy programs. Senator Obama has supported the status quo.
Senator McCain opposes an effort to add wind damage coverage to the already financially troubled National Flood Insurance Program. Adding wind coverage to NFIP would put the program deeper in the red and encourage development in ecologically fragile, hurricane-prone coastal areas by having taxpayers across the country underwrite the risk of such development.
Senator Obama favors adding wind damage coverage to NFIP.
Senator McCain has promised to end the destructive practice of mountaintop removal coal mining, which—as has been highlighted at this conference—is destroying the Appalachian landscape and has resulted in thousands of miles of streams being buried by the overburden.
Senator Obama has been considerably less committal about this issue.
Since energy has been such a high profile focus of the campaigns, I’m sure most of you are aware of the major distinctions between the two candidates’ energy policies. So, in the interest of time I’m just going to make a few points.
While much of the talk has centered around offshore drilling and nuclear energy, it is important to point out that Senator McCain has a very balanced energy plan that is fully integrated with his climate change policy.
He is committed to quickly shifting our transportation sector away from oil by dramatically improving fuel efficiency and relying more on alternative fuels. He believes that electric hybrids and flex-fuel capability are keys to this. He supports accelerating the development and use of cellulosic ethanol.
His support for nuclear energy is rooted is his commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. He is not convinced that we can meet our energy needs in a climate-friendly way unless we expand our use of nuclear energy.
Senator McCain opposes oil drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, as does Senator Obama.
The Obama campaign continually attacks Senator McCain by claiming he opposes tax credits for wind and solar. While he has voted against specific bills for various reasons, he wants to rationalize the current patchwork of temporary tax credits and provide an even-handed system of credits that will remain in place until a cap on carbon emissions can transform the market.
Anyone who tries to compare Senator McCain’s stewardship ethic and his energy and environmental policies to President Bush is simply not being honest. The differences are dramatic, whether the issue is climate change, the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, CAFE standards, Tongass logging subsidies, heck, even the role of science in informing public policy—and those differences have positively impacted the tone and substance of the GOP platform.
In 1908, Republican President Theodore Roosevelt was busy implementing his great conservation vision for America—and protecting our nation’s natural heritage more than any other president before or since.
Now, exactly 100 years later, we have an opportunity to elect another Republican, cut from a similar mold, who believes that conservation is conservative, who cherishes our public lands, and who is passionate about the stewardship obligation we owe future generations.
Take a look at the pictures of this cave at the National Geographic site.
HT: Geology.com News
Grace and Peace
I was watching CNN today (not something I normally do; I was standing in a line at the post office) and the story was about record melting of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean. The prediction was that the Arctic could be ice-free in the summer within five years.
And I was reading Geology.com News today (which is something I normally do). There was a link to the Geological Survey of Norway, with an article by Gudmund Løvø entitled Less ice in the Arctic Ocean 6000-7000 years ago.
Recent mapping of a number of raised beach ridges on the north coast of Greenland suggests that the ice cover in the Arctic Ocean was greatly reduced some 6000-7000 years ago. The Arctic Ocean may have been periodically ice free.
The scientists studied ancient beaches along the northern coast of Greenland. Two distinct types of beaches were studied. Beaches formed when pack-ice is present tend to have an irregular character, formed when ridges of ice are pressed against the sandy shoreline. Beaches formed where there is open water, on the other hand, tend to be long and linear, formed as linear waves break along a long stretch of the shore. Shorelines from 6000-7000 years ago are of the linear type, suggesting that there was open water for a considerable distance northward from Greenland, perhaps even to the North Pole.
I’m not a global warming denier, which bothers some of my friends. I do believe that human activities are affecting Earth’s climate. This does point out, however, the importance of geological studies of Quaternary (ice age to present) climate systems. Whatever is happening today, even if caused by humans, can only be fully understood in its geological context.
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From today’s Astronomy Picture of the Day: Saturn, its rings edge-on, and four moons:
Grace and Peace
Read Obama’s Abortion Extremism, by Robert George.
The press reports that many pro-life people say they will be voting for Obama. The Obama message is that his social programs will reduce the need for abortions. In reality, Obama is the most pro-abortion senator, and the most pro-abortion presidential candidate, we have ever had, and all restrictions on abortion would disappear.
If you consider yourself even somewhat pro-life, read Obama’s Abortion Extremism before casting your ballot. In terms of the rights of the unborn, this election is indeed critical.
Barack Obama is the most extreme pro-abortion candidate ever to seek the office of President of the United States. He is the most extreme pro-abortion member of the United States Senate. Indeed, he is the most extreme pro-abortion legislator ever to serve in either house of the United States Congress.
Yet there are Catholics and Evangelicals-even self-identified pro-life Catholics and Evangelicals – who aggressively promote Obama’s candidacy and even declare him the preferred candidate from the pro-life point of view.
Robert George picks apart the Obama rhetoric about reducing the need for abortions through social programs, and goes through Obama’s statements and voting record, which includes the following:
- Favors federal funding for abortions, which, according to the abortion industry could double the number of abortions in this country. And you and I would be paying for it.
- Favors the Freedom of Choice Act (FOCA), which would sweep away existing restrictions on abortion through all nine months.
- Opposed the ban on full term partial-birth abortions.
- Opposed legislation that would protect children born alive during an abortion. Better to throw them in the trash can, according to Obama. The federal version of this legislation passed the senate unanimously before Obama was in the senate, receiving support from even the most ardent supporters of abortion.
- Obama not only supports embryonic stem cell research on a large scale, he opposed spending on promising non-embryonic research programs that would have removed the ethical problems of using human embryos. “It is as if Obama is opposed to stem-cell research unless it involves killing human embryos.”
- Obama opposes parental consent and notification laws (the school nurse cannot give a child a painkiller, but the girl can get an abortion without parental consent or notification)
Abortion is the most critical moral issue facing us. There are many other important issues, but we cannot take the giant step backwards that an Obama administration would bring.
The Republicans in the past thirty some years have not done all that the pro-life movement has hoped for, but it could have been much worse. An Obama administration, for all its talk about “hope,” would be a disaster for the most helpless ones in our society.
Grace and Peace
An image of sand dunes and interdune salt flats from Rub’ al Khali, the Empty Quarter of the Arabian Peninsula. This vast sandy desert covers large parts of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates.
This image was on NASA’s Image of the Day Gallery for October 20, 2008. Take a look at it there to see the image in its detailed glory.
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The phrase “clean coal” came up in all three presidential debates. So what is clean coal? The Christian Science Monitor has a brief article describing the concept. The concern now, of course, isn’t just that burning coal releases acid-rain causing sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere, or that burning coal is a major source of mercury contamination, or that surface mining of coal is rather hard on landscapes and water. The concern is that burning coal releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The idea behind “clean coal” is to take the CO2 produced by combustion of coal, and to inject it underground for long-term storage. This has been tested on a small scale, but never been tested on a large scale.
Coal, being particularly abundant in the United States, is likely to be a key part of our energy future for quite some time.
Read more about it at What is ‘clean coal’ anyway?
Both McCain and Obama support the development of clean coal technology.
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Pickens plan video — a plan to use natural gas for transportation, wind power for electricity generation, and to reduce the U.S. expenditures for imported petroleum by hundreds of billions of dollars per year.
HT: Geology News
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McDonalds restaurants in Romania are superior to McDonalds in the U.S.A. The food is better, the service is better, they ask which Happy Meal toy your child wants, and… the tables are made out of beautiful SOLID GRANITE!
If it weren’t for “Super Size Me,” these tables would be enough to make any geologist eat at McDonalds every day. I didn’t eat there every day, but occasionally I would be there with students, and I would be sure to point out the granite tables. I would point out the potassium feldspar, quartz, amphiboles, and accessory minerals. I would show them the zoning in the feldspar crystals, and tell them that each mineral grain had a story to tell. I’d also point out that the table was probably somewhat radioactive, but at a level low enough that they really didn’t have to worry about it.
Earth Magazine has an article on this same topic: Granite Countertops: NOT Silent Killers.
Granite does contain elevated levels of uranium and thorium, and it releases tiny amounts of radioactive radon gas, which is the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco. But the radiation emitted by granite is generally at a level well within safety limits, and it is good to test your home for radon whether or not you have granite in the kitchen, as naturally-occuring radon seeping up from the ground is a greater risk than granite countertops. I wouldn’t recommend sleeping on a granite slab in an enclosed box every night for twenty years, but you are far more likely to die from the Big Macs and fries that are served on the granite table than from the radiation that table emits.
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A dramatic image of Enceladus, one of the moons of Saturn, taken by the Cassini probe last week:
The description from Astronomy Picture of the Day, October 14, 2008:
Explanation: What creates the unusual tiger stripes on Saturn’s moon Enceladus? No one is sure. To help find out, scientists programmed the robotic Cassini spacecraft to dive right past the plume-spewing moon last week. Previously, the tiger stripe regions were found to be expelling plumes of water-ice, fueling speculation that liquid seas might occur beneath Enceladus’ frozen exterior. Such seas are so interesting because they are candidates to contain extraterrestrial life. Important processes in tiger stripe formation may include heating from below and moonquakes. Visible above is terrain on Enceladus so young that only a few craters are visible. This newly released raw image shows at least one type of false artifact, however, as seeming chains of craters are not so evident in other concurrently released images of the same region. The large tiger stripe across the image middle is impressive not only for its length and breadth, but because a large internal shadow makes it also appear quite deep. Cassini will next fly by Enceladus on October 31.
Grace and Peace
Stand to Reason Blog has another review of “Religulous.” Here are a few excerpts from Religulous is Ridiculous:
Watching Bill Maher’s supposed expose of the irrationality of religion “Religulous” is like being hit over the head with a club for 90 minutes. Not even a baseball bat. A club. Because it’s so atrociously dull, heavy-handed, and crude. And I don’t mean crude in the rude sense, though there is some of that. Maher’s evaluation of and arguments against religion are crude and are only used as a club to beat people. He says at the beginning that he’s a skeptic looking for answers, but that’s a ruse that he makes explicit in the last five minutes when he expresses his evangelistic goals for his movie.
The movie is made by the man who made “Borat.” And it’s really the same kind of movie. A clown does absurd things to get a reaction out of unsuspecting people. Only this time the clown doesn’t realize the part he’s playing.
Again, don’t take a movie like this as a serious attack on Christian faith. It doesn’t address the real issues. The creators of the film found Christians, and other religious people, who say silly things. So what? I can find historians who say silly things about Abraham Lincoln, but does that mean Abraham Lincoln didn’t exist.
I guess we shouldn’t be surprised. But we should also not be confused or have our faith weakened by these attacks.
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The title of the movie “Religulous,” starring comedian Bill Maher, is a combination of “Religious” and “Ridiculous.” Like most of the bitter propaganda coming out of the atheist camp in the past few years, this movie will reinforce the anti-Christian attitudes among the atheists and their allies, but the content of the film is intellectually indefensible.
Here are two excerpts from a movie review by Mark Hemingway:
Still, it’s never taken much to scratch the surface of Maher’s glib opinions to expose the underlying dermatitis of vanity, egoism, and even outright hostility. Maher apparently thinks he doesn’t show enough of these unflattering traits when he discusses politics; that’s just about the only conceivable reason someone of his temperament would make a documentary about religion.
And thus was born Religulous. It’s hard to pin down where Maher falls along the atheist-to-agnostic spectrum, except to say he’s an avowed opponent of organized religion, which he has described as a “neurological disorder.” (Maher serves on the board of Sam Harris’s Reason Project with Richard Dawkins and Christopher Hitchens, which directly links him with the three biggest atheist intellectuals in the world.)
Of course, Bill Maher is also on the board of PETA, thinks milk is poisonous, and has stated that he doesn’t believe in vaccination or that Louis Pasteur’s germ theory of disease is correct. So while he may not believe in God, the idea that Bill Maher is somehow in a position to judge whose beliefs are reasonable is kind of laughable.
Particularly when Maher thinks he knows so much more about the target of his opprobrium than he actually does. He makes his first mistake in the first line of the movie by referring to the “Book of Revelations” — it’s not plural — and it just snowballs from there.
Within a few minutes Maher is denying not just the divinity of Jesus Christ but his actual historical existence, a question disputed by almost no credible scholar. You can argue that it is difficult to believe in Jesus’s existence considering that primary records for his existence are recorded by only a precious few devoted disciples who recorded his allegorical teachings in detail as well as the social unrest they inspired. Then again, if that’s the standard – you probably don’t believe Socrates either.
[Underlining in the original]
Maher doesn’t confront one serious theologian or apologetics expert in the entire film. Not One.
Don’t let your faith in Christ or in the Bible be shaken by these guys. They come across as confident and intelligent, but their arguments against Christ and the Bible don’t stand up.
Grace and Peace
We traveled to Billings, Montana for the weekend. It started snowing Thursday night as we were driving there, and didn’t stop until some time Sunday, for a total of 22 inches (56 cm). We were able to build snow men, have a snow ball fight, make a snow maze in the park, and go cross-country skiing. We had a blast!
Let it snow!
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The NASA MESSENGER probe flew by Mercury for the second time on October 6th. It flew by Mercury earlier this year, will fly by one more time in 2009, and will enter orbit around the planet in 2011.
Here’s an image taken yesterday:
Some parts of Mercury’s surface revealed in this have never been photographed in detail before. One type of feature that stands out are the rays, composed of ejecta from impact craters.
Mercury is the least-well known of the terrestrial planets. We know considerably more about the moons of Jupiter and Saturn than we do about Mercury.
Source: NASA MESSENGER home page.
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