The GeoChristian

The Earth. Christianity. They go together.

Science and faith in the UK

From USA Today: Science and faith, the British way, an opinion piece by Mark I. Pinsky.

Some of the most prominent researchers in England enjoy a vibrant religious life that coexists with their immersion in the scientific world. Indeed, these evangelicals might give American believers, and scientists, something to think about.

Pinsky, a Jewish journalist who has written much about American Evangelicals, states that he wanted to explore how the tension between science and religion played out in other cultures. He traveled to Britain, where he interviewed prominent scientists who professed faith in Christ, including Sir John Houghton (meteorologist, global warming expert), Sir John Polkinghorne (astrophysicist, Anglican priest),  Simon Conway Morris (paleontologist), and others.

I asked these scientists the sources of their belief, and the answers they gave me were intriguing to someone who for years has been more immersed in the world of American evangelicals, where I frequently found that hostility toward science seemed to be the norm in public controversies. These Brits cited a disparate mixture of empirical scientific evidence and the veracity of Scripture for their Christianity, based equally on science and faith.

First, they say the likelihood that intelligent, carbon-based life originated in the universe by chance is infinitesimally minute. And second, they proclaim their belief in what they accept as the firsthand, biblical accounts of Jesus’ life, death and physical resurrection.

All of these scientists are theistic evolutionists–scientists who believe that God used evolution as his means of bringing life to its present state–yet proclaim their acceptance of the Scriptural witness to the life, death, and resurrection of Christ. In general, they include science as part of the reason that they are Christians. They accept evolution as a process, but cannot see the first cell as having originated purely by chance.

I have read a book by Conway Morris, Life’s Solution: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe, but I haven’t read works by the other authors. Conway Morris sees both young-Earth creationism and intelligent design as faulty, but is equally critical of the atheistic materialism of fellow paleobiologists Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Dawkins.

Here in the U.S., these men might be denounced by many Evangelicals as compromisers with atheistic evolutionists. But we need to ask ourselves whether we are often guilty of the opposite extreme of creating dissension between science and faith in places where it is not necessary.

HT: World Magazine

Grace and Peace

September 29, 2008 Posted by | Christianity, Origins | 1 Comment

Visualizing Bible cross-references

Chris Harrison, of Carnegie Mellon University, and Christopher Romhild, of Nordelbische Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche in Germany, have created a graphic that shows 63,779 cross-references between different portions of the Bible. The colored lines are the cross-references. The white bars at the bottom represent the number of verses in each individual chapter of the Bible; the long white bar at bottom center would be Psalm 119, which has 176 verses.

National Geographic Best Science Images of 2008 #6

Chris Harrison – Visualizing the Bible – medium resolution jpg or high resolution png

Cross-references: Some Bibles have cross-references in the margins, or between the columns, that point the reader to related passages in the Bible. For example, for Revelation 2:7 (To him who overcomes, I will give the right to eat from the tree of life, which is in the paradise of God. (NIV)) there is a cross-reference that points me to other places in the Bible where the tree of life is mentioned, such as Genesis 2:9.

Grace and Peace


September 28, 2008 Posted by | Christianity | 1 Comment

Natural gas-powered cars

Geology News recently pointed to two articles about using natural gas (CNG — compressed natural gas) to power cars:

Toyota Looks to Embrace Natural-Gas Hybrid Cars

Chesapeake Energy Corporation Unveils National Campaign to Encourage Switch From Foreign Oil to American Natural Gas in U.S. Transportation Sector – From Chesapeake Energy, includes a video

Some advantages of using CNG to power cars:

  • The United States has large reserves of natural gas. We can greatly reduce our dependence on foreign oil by using CNG to fuel our cars.
  • Natural gas burns cleaner than gasoline
  • Gasoline engines can be converted to run on CNG. This is common in Europe; our old van in Romania (the Party Van, as it was affectionately known) was converted to CNG by the man who bought it from us.
  • The technology is proven and conversion could be rapid.

The big disadvantage right now:

  • There are few gas stations that offer CNG, so it is difficult to find places to refuel. 

You can have a refueling station installed in your home, using your natural gas line, which would be adequate if you use the car for local trips only.

A few additional thoughts:

  • The long-term energy supply for transportation needs to be clean and sustainable.
  • Natural gas is a limited natural resource, so CNG would, at best, be only a short-term solution (on the order of decades?) to our transportation energy problems.
  • Additionally, increased drilling of natural gas has environmental implications that need to be considered.

Grace and Peace

September 27, 2008 Posted by | Energy, Environment | Leave a comment

Steak vs. hamburger

I don’t watch many movies, and couldn’t tell you a movie that Paul Newman starred in. But here’s a great quote from him (the part in bold) in the Yahoo news story of his death:

Newman sometimes teamed with his wife and fellow Oscar winner, Joanne Woodward, with whom he had one of Hollywood‘s rare long-term marriages. “I have steak at home, why go out for hamburger?” Newman [said] when asked if he was tempted to stray.

What a great perspective on faithfulness in marriage.

Grace and Peace

September 27, 2008 Posted by | Ethics | Leave a comment

Out with mpg?

In Europe, gas mileage is expressed in liters per 100 km. Growing up with miles per gallon (mpg), this was a double assault on my abilities to convert units, and it never made sense to me.

RealClimate has a post on the case for going to the same concept in the United States: The mpg confusion. Using gallons per 100 miles, rather than miles per gallon, actually allows for more meaningful and intuitive comparisons between cars. The current mpg system isn’t a linear relationship, which means that a small improvement at the bottom end (SUVs) actually makes a greater difference than a big improvement at the high-efficiency end (compacts).

Some advocate using gallons per 10,000 miles instead, as this gives the buyer an idea of how much gasoline will be used in a year.

This data table puts it all together, with a column added for gasoline cost per 10,000 miles (at $3.50 per gallon):

Car mpg gal/100 mi gal/10,000 mi cost per 10,000 mi
typical SUV 12 8.3 830 $2905
hybrid SUV 18 5.6 560 $1960
typical compact 25 4.0 400 $1400
hybrid compact (Prius) 46 2.2 220 $  770

If one were to replace their typical SUV with a hybrid SUV, the gas mileage increases from 12 mpg to 18 mpg. This six mpg improvement is actually more significant than the 21 mpg improvement one gets from replacing the typical compact with a Prius! This is especially evident in the last three columns of the table. The SUV buyer saves 270 gallons (or $945) every 10,000 miles by purchasing a hybrid. The compact car buyer saves 180 gallons (or $630) every 10,000 miles by purchasing a hybrid.

This is easier to see with gal/100 mi (or gal per 10,000 mi, or cost per 10,000 mi) than it is with mpg.

This also shows the importance of weaning our society off of non-hybrid SUVs.

Of course, the SUV driver would do even better to replace their car with something smaller. By replacing their SUV with a hybrid compact, they would save 610 gal, or $2135, every 10,000.

Grace and Peace

September 26, 2008 Posted by | Energy, Environment | 1 Comment

Denver geologic map

The US Geological Survey has published the Geologic Map of the Denver West 30′ x 60′ Quadrangle, North-Central Colorado. A picture may be worth a thousand words, but a good geologic map can be worth a thousand pictures. The geological story told by this map portrays 1.79 billion years of sedimentation, igneous activity, metamorphism, deformation, and erosion.

Plus, a good geologic map is a work of art:

Grace and Peace

September 25, 2008 Posted by | Geology, Maps | Leave a comment

Just when I said something nice about PETA…

Last week I said something nice about PETA: Sometimes PETA is right.

But now they’re back to wackiness, as reported in Yahoo news:Mama’s milk ice cream cone, anyone? The PETA proposal came in a letter to the makers of Ben & Jerry’s ice cream, suggesting that they use human milk, rather than cow’s milk, in the production of their ice cream.

From the Yahoo news article:

To Ben & Jerry’s, the idea is udderly ridiculous.

“We applaud PETA’s novel approach to bringing attention to an issue, but we believe a mother’s milk is best used for her child,” spokesman Sean Greenwood said in an e-mail. He didn’t respond to requests for an interview.

“I think it’s a little nutty,” said the Rev. Roger Wooton, 83, of Malden, Mass., finishing up a cup of Heath Bar Crunch.

“How would they get all that milk?” said his wife, Jane Wooton, 77.

Jen Wahlbrink, 34, of Phoenix, who breast-fed her 11-month-old son, Cameron, said she wouldn’t touch ice cream made from mother’s milk. She remembers her nursing days — and not that fondly.

“The (breast) pumps just weren’t that much fun. You really do feel like a cow,” she said, cradling her son in her hands.

I applaud efforts to treat cows nicely. But I’ll put this idea in the same PETA file as defending the rights of cockroaches.

Grace and Peace

September 25, 2008 Posted by | Environment, Ethics | Leave a comment

Christianity — protection against superstition and the paranormal

Atheists, and other opponents of the truthfulness of Christianity, often equate Christianity with superstition.

A quote from “Look Who’s Irrational Now” by Mollie Ziegler Hemingway in the Wall Street Journal:

The reality is that the New Atheist campaign, by discouraging religion, won’t create a new group of intelligent, skeptical, enlightened beings. Far from it: It might actually encourage new levels of mass superstition. And that’s not a conclusion to take on faith — it’s what the empirical data tell us.

“What Americans Really Believe,” a comprehensive new study released by Baylor University yesterday, shows that traditional Christian religion greatly decreases belief in everything from the efficacy of palm readers to the usefulness of astrology. It also shows that the irreligious and the members of more liberal Protestant denominations, far from being resistant to superstition, tend to be much more likely to believe in the paranormal and in pseudoscience than evangelical Christians.

And…

Surprisingly, while increased church attendance and membership in a conservative denomination has a powerful negative effect on paranormal beliefs, higher education doesn’t.

Perhaps denial of the greatest truth opens one up to a myriad of falsehoods.

HT: Cranach

Grace and Peace

September 22, 2008 Posted by | Apologetics, Christianity | Leave a comment

Batty Arguments

This item was originally posted in September 2007. I have added it to my blog recycling program. Because I have new readers of The GeoChristian, I will occasionally go back and re-use some of my favorite blog entries.

One way for me to have my faith strengthened is to get in discussions with skeptics. They usually think they know it all and that Christians are a bunch of idiots, but when they speak they expose their ignorance and poor reasoning. Last year I reported on a discussion I had via World Magazine Blog with a skeptic who was convinced that the Bible teaches that unicorns exist. The KJV does use the word “unicorn,” but that is a poor translation of the Hebrew word, as I discussed in the post Unicorns, the Bible, and education.

I got involved in another one of those discussions this week. It started out as a discussion about human evolution, and the fact that it appears that Homo habilis and Homo erectus coexisted. With dozens of people contributing to conversation, it quickly diverged (degraded?). One of the skeptics pointed out that the Bible cannot be true because it classifies bats as birds, while now we know that bats are mammals. The reference is Leviticus 11:13-18:

And these you shall detest among the birds; they shall not be eaten; they are detestable: the eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture, the kite, the falcon of any kind, every raven of any kind, the ostrich, the nighthawk, the sea gull, the hawk of any kind, the little owl, the cormorant, the short-eared owl, the barn owl, the tawny owl, the carrion vulture, the stork, the heron of any kind, the hoopoe, and the bat. (ESV)

Here was how I responded, with a little additional editing:

Regarding bats being classified as birds: The fact that the Hebrew word for “bird” included bats doesn’t make the Biblical record false. There is no reason to expect the Biblical languages to conform to modern taxonomy. That is like saying the astronomy textbook on my bookshelf is unscientific because it calls Pluto a planet. The definition of “planet” has changed, but the book is still a useful reference book. Likewise, the definition of “bird” has changed, but that doesn’t invalidate non-scientific works written before.

Skeptics will continue to attack the Bible, but don’t let your faith be shaken by their batty arguments.

Grace and Peace

September 19, 2008 Posted by | Apologetics, Blog Recycling, Origins | 1 Comment

And the newest official dwarf planet is…

Now there are eight planets, and five dwarf planets. Pluto, Ceres, Eris, and Makemake have been joined by Haumea (how-MAY-ah, like “how may ah help you?”).

From LiveScience: Dwarf Planet Named for Hawaiian Goddess.

Some day soon, the number of dwarf planets could number in the dozens. May I suggest names that are easier to remember, such as Sleepy, Dopey, and Doc; or perhaps Gimli, Gloin, and Thorin Oakenshield.

Grace and Peace

September 19, 2008 Posted by | Astronomy | Leave a comment

Ike damage

NASA Earth Observatory has some pictures of damage done by Hurricane Ike:

The writeup explains the value of images taken from an airplane, as compared to the value of satellite shots:

The photos were taken to help communities respond to the disaster. Aerial photography is valuable because it provides a highly detailed view of damage in a small area. Satellites, on the other hand, can provide a wide-scale view, useful in mapping out the extent of a disaster. For example, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite observed flooding over hundreds of kilometers of the Gulf Coast on September 17, but could not image damage down to the street level as these photographs do. Also, unlike a satellite, an airplane is capable of flying beneath clouds.

This also illustrates, once again, the dangers of building on low-lying barrier islands.

Grace and Peace

September 19, 2008 Posted by | Natural Disasters, Why Earth science matters | Leave a comment

Futurology

I always find books and articles about the future to be fascinating. Here are some quotes from Futurologist Richard Watson’s 2050 vision: goodbye Belgium, hello brain transplants in the Telegraph.

[T]he environment will remain vitally important, but climate change won’t be the only game in town – the approach of peak oil, peak coal, peak gas, peak water, peak uranium and even peak people (a severe shortage of workers in many parts of the world) will also have an impact, and require a profound shift towards sustainability.

All of these have an Earth-science link! Sustainability is a key concept that we, as a society, are rather slow to grasp.

In Japan, the percentage of people aged over 75 is forecast to increase by 36 per cent between 2005 and 2015, meaning that taxes would have to go up by 175 per cent in a generation to maintain current levels of benefit.

What if the young people rebel against paying for us in our old age? I’ve heard it said that the generation that chose to be pro-choice in their 20s will regret it when they are the unwanted ones in their 70s.

In political and economic terms, the shift of power to the east, and the rise of countries such as China and India, will continue.

India and China are rising in science and technology as well.

It is estimated that by 2020, only 10 per cent of financial transactions will be in cash. We can safely predict that the idea of money as a physical object might well become extinct not long after – especially if a global pandemic starts us thinking about all the germs on those grubby notes. Instead, digital transactions will be made through computers, or cell phones, or even chips inserted into our forearms.

What would Hal Lindsey say? [Side note: Coins carry fewer germs than paper money]

Grace and Peace.

September 19, 2008 Posted by | Environment, Future, Population | 1 Comment

Rare Earth?

Many Christians, including myself, find the arguments expressed in the 2003 book Rare Earth to be a powerful statement of the uniqueness of the Earth in the universe. The thesis of the book, written by two respected University of Washington scientists (Ward, a geologist, and Brownlee, an astronomer) is that the conditions present on the surface of the Earth that make it habitable for advanced life are likely to be very rare, or even unique, in the universe. For a planet to have advanced life–organisms more complex than bacteria–it must orbit at the right distance from the right kind of star, have the right sized moon for stability of orbit, have the right core, and so on. Perhaps, say the authors, we are all alone in the universe after all.

Christians have latched on to many of these same ideas. The writings of Hugh Ross of Reasons to Believe, and of Guillermo Gonzalez (The Privileged Planet, book and DVD) contain many of the same arguments for the uniqueness of planet Earth. The argument goes that apart from the intervention of God, the universe is a dangerous place. Perhaps there is only one place in the universe that is suitable for humans, and that is because God (not chance) has orchestrated it to be so.

I find these arguments to be strong, and Rare Earth is one of my favorite geology books, one I highly recommend. I also acknowledge, both scientifically and theologically, the concept could possibly be flawed. From a theological perspective, we cannot argue persuasively that there is only one Earth-like planet in the universe. Earth might be unique, it might be rare, or the universe might abound with advanced life. Note that I am not talking about intelligent life right now, only advanced, multicellular life. Could it be that our Milky Way Galaxy contains millions of planets that are suitable for everything from bacteria and algae to forests and flocks of birds? Perhaps in the initial creation, and in the future new Heavens and new Earth, the universe was made for humans to explore and thrive in. We just simply do not know.

Not all scientists agree with the rare Earth hypothesis. Many astrobiologists believe that the universe is filled with life. Though I presently find the arguments for a rare, or even unique, Earth to be strong, I do acknowledge that this hypothesis could be wrong.

Part of the problem right now is that we don’t have that much data to work with. We now know of hundreds of stars that have their own solar systems. Since the 1990s, we have been able to detect large planets orbiting around stars by the wobble of the stars produced by the strong gravitational field of the giant planets. Most of these discoveries have been Jupiter-sized planets orbiting their stars at searingly close ranges, and in most of these solar systems there would be no chance for the existence of terrestrial planets. With our current instruments, we cannot planets the size of Earth.

That should change just a little bit in 2009. NASA will be launching the Kepler Mission, which is a space telescope designed to simultaneously observe about 100,000 stars, watching for transits of planets across the faces of these stars. As even an Earth-sized planet passes directly between the star and the Earth, there will be a slight diminishing of the intensity of light observed. The Kepler Mission will not allow us to see the planet directly, but will enable us to determine the presence of the planet, and to infer its size and orbit. Knowing the nature of the star itself, and the parameters of the planet’s orbit, we would be able to determine if the planet were in the star’s “habitable zone,” that not-too-close, not-to-far region that allows liquid water to exist on a planet’s surface.

This won’t tell us whether the planet has life; spectrometers sensitive enough to detect things like an oxygen-rich atmosphere at distances of many light years lie in the future. What it will enable is a tightening of some of the variables that go into the debate between a rare Earth and a green universe.

As Christians, we can rejoice in God’s creation whether we see God’s providence in an Earth that is a unique,  protected oasis in a hostile universe, or if we discover a multitude of worlds touched by God’s creative Spirit (but still oases in a hostile universe). The rare Earth hypothesis may still turn out to be sound, but I’m not going to have any kind of theological struggle if it turns out to be wrong.

NASA Kepler Mission

Live Science: How Rare is the Earth?

Wikipedia: Kepler Mission

Image: The Kepler Spacecraft, NASA image from Wikipedia

Image: The Kepler target region, from kepler.nasa.gov

Grace and Peace

September 18, 2008 Posted by | Astrobiology, Astronomy, Origin of Life | Leave a comment

A model for youth ministry

I was once a guest missionary at a missions conference at a midwest church. A friend of mine was also a guest missionary at this conference, and he had the privilege of speaking before the youth Sunday school. For the first five or so minutes of class, the youth pastor/leader talked about all the fun things that were coming up: “We’re going to do a fundraiser carwash, and it’s going to be fun. We’re going to go do _________ ministry, and it’s going to be fun…” My friend, who had a rather decadent pre-Christian life and was radically and abruptly transformed by the gospel, then started his talk before the students with, “Before I was a Christian, I had a lot of ‘fun.’ Now I have joy.”

I was reminded about this as I was reading a Christianity Today interview of Richard Foster today (Foster is the author of Celebration of Discipline). Here’s Foster’s answer to one question:

What were the key influences in your early Christian faith?

One was a youth pastor at that church; he was very serious and didn’t go in much for the fun and games. He took us through a two-year study of the Book of Romans; I mean a real study. In terms of anchoring me theologically, that was great.

A second was Bonhoeffer and his writings, especially The Cost of Discipleship. His writing was the only place I could find serious engagement with discipleship. And that probably saved me from abandoning the faith. If all this stuff I read in the Gospels were really true, then that should change everything, but when I looked at the churches in my youthful idealism, I didn’t see it. But I saw it in The Cost of Discipleship. And then, of course, his story was compelling because of his own martyrdom. So I clung to that. I still have the old book, taped together.

I’m all for having fun (I’m still having fun in my mid-40s). I’m even more for serious study of God’s Word and meaningful discipleship at all ages.

Grace and Peace

September 18, 2008 Posted by | Christianity | Leave a comment

Ike flooding from space

Satellite imagery can often be used for a fast and accurate assessment of conditions on the surface of Earth, as can be seen in these images of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf coast before and after Hurricane Ike. The extent of flooding is clearly evident.

The images are the NASA Earth Observatory site.

Grace and Peace

September 18, 2008 Posted by | Natural Disasters | Leave a comment

Sometimes PETA is right

I’m not a big fan of PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals), as I’ve noted before. It is certainly wrong to abuse animals, but at times PETA puts animals before humans. When one counts cockroaches on a movie set to make sure none of them got hurt, something is wrong. But the core truth is that, even though animals don’t have the same rights or value as humans, they are still creatures of God, and are not to be mistreated.

The headline reads Video shows workers abusing pigs. The article begins:

An undercover video shot at an Iowa pig farm shows workers hitting sows with metal rods, slamming piglets on a concrete floor and bragging about jamming rods up into sows’ hindquarters. On the video, obtained by The Associated Press, a supervisor tells an undercover investigator for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals that when he gets angry or a sow won’t move, “I grab one of these rods and jam it in her (anus).” The farm, located outside of Bayard, Iowa, about 60 miles west of Des Moines, is a supplier to Hormel Foods of Austin, Minn. PETA wants to use the results of the investigation to pressure Hormel, the maker of Spam and other food products, to demand that its suppliers ensure humane treatment of pigs.

The fact that a Hormel spokeswoman calls the abuse “completely unacceptable” is an indication that what happened here went far beyond herding uncooperative pigs.

The world isn’t what it ought to be.

I’ll still eat ham and bacon, but hope that my pork comes from farms with much higher standards for the treatment of animals.

PETA link: Undercover Investigation Reveals Hormel Supplier’s Abuse of Mother Pigs and Piglets

Grace and Peace

September 17, 2008 Posted by | Ethics | 2 Comments

Evolution/Religion stories in the news

Some news stories in the past week that have to do with religion and evolution:

Vatican official, professor dismayed by Christian groups that reject evolution

A professor at a Vatican-sponsored university expressed dismay Tuesday that some Christian groups reject the theory of evolution — implicitly criticizing the literal interpretation of the Bible.

Church Owes Darwin Apology Over Evolution, Says Senior Anglican

The Church of England owes Charles Darwin an apology for misunderstanding his theory of evolution and making errors over its reaction to it, a senior clergyman said today.

Sorry, Charlie (same story at WorldMagBlog)

Leading Scientist Urges Teaching of Creationism in Schools

Creationism should be taught in schools as a legitimate point of view to stop religious children losing interest in science lessons, a leading Royal Society scientist has urged.

Grace and Peace

September 16, 2008 Posted by | Origins | Leave a comment

Bear vs. bike

Montana man rides bike into bear, and lives to tell about it. From the Missoulian.

Grace and Peace

September 16, 2008 Posted by | Fun, Montana | Leave a comment

Atheism on Issues Etc.

Issues Etc. is one of the best programs on Christian radio. Host Todd Wilken has done three segments on atheism in the past couple weeks that are excellent:

  • 9/3/08 – Dinesh D’Souza on Responding to Atheists
  • 9/11/08 – Dr. Albert Mohler on the New Atheists
  • 9/15/08 – Dr. Doug Groothuis on Christopher Hitchens’ Book, “God is Not Great”

Here’s a quote from the D’Souza segment (D’Souza is the author of What’s So Great About Christianity):

One reason I’m not afraid to debate these guyes is not because they aren’t really smart–they are–but they are smart in a narrow field. And yet you find that rather confidently they wander out of that field to make claims in [other] realms: history, politics, philosophy. You’ll find Richard Dawkins discoursing on the shiites and the sunnis. Here’s a guy who’s basically an expert on evolutionary biology, giving us lectures about the shia and the sunni. Well, on that subject he’s a virtual ignoramous, and so I find it very easy to deflate these balloons, beccause you get people who should be confined to an area they know something about, trying to speak in areas they don’t.

Issues Etc. is a daily program (Mon-Fri) that covers an incredible range of topics. Wilkins avoids the trap D’Souza is talking about by bringing in experts from various fields and discussing the topics with them.

I have a free subscription to Issues Etc. as an iTunes podcast (search podcasts for Issues Etc); the Issues Etc. website has other ways to download the program as well.

(I don’t always agree with Wilken on some doctrinal issues, or on young-Earth creationism, but still love the program because it always focuses on Christ and what he has done for us on the cross rather than on us)

Grace and Peace

September 16, 2008 Posted by | Apologetics, Christianity | 11 Comments

Lascaux cave paintings threatened

Paleolithic paintings in Lascaux Cave, France, are threatened by mold. These are among the oldest works of art in existence, dated at around 16,000 years old. This is reported in an article from Radio Netherlands Worldwide.

HT: Geology News

Image: Wikipedia – Lascaux

Grace and Peace

September 12, 2008 Posted by | Archeology | 1 Comment

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